Face | sinuses, sinusitis and endoscopy

There are four air-filled cavities in the area of human skull and different species of mammals which have a way to the nose. The functions of the sinuses are to lighten the weight of the skull,Participation in the skullandbrain temperature regulation, buffer against shocks and making the weather warm and humid for Breathing.

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Facial sinuses, sinusitis and endoscopy

There are four sinuses on each side of the nose.

  1. Frontal sinus
  2. Maxillary sinus
  3. Ethmoid sinus
  4. Sphenoid sinus

There are four air-filled cavities in the area of human skull and different species of mammals which have a way to the nose. The functions of the sinuses are to lighten the weight of the skull,Participation in the skullandbrain temperature regulation, buffer against shocks and making the weather warm and humid for Breathing.

Maxillary sinus is located on each side of the space between the cheek and nose in human.Ethmoid sinus islocated between the nose and eyes and the frontal sinus is in the area between the nose and forehead.Thesphenoid sinus is in the back of the eye and the nose.

The sinuses are opened by a narrow duct into the nose and in addition to the self-discharge, are bleeding If this narrow duct is blocked for any reason, the sinus is not discharge and its infection leads to sinusitis or inflammation of Sinus.

The main factor of sinus tract obstructions:

  • common cold
  • Allergies
  • mechanical obstruction

Chronic sinusitis:

Due to a common cold, a person should normally improve within 3-7days.If symptoms lasted more than a week,should be suspected of sinusitis.Its Symptoms include nasal congestion- which can block the sinuses and prevent them from draining normally that if there is adequate immune system, people naturally will improve in time.In some cases this situation last for a long time causes a condition called chronic sinusitis.

Unlike most people believe that chronic sinusitis is not painful or chronic sinusitis is complicated. The main symptom of chronic sinusitis is drainage of a thick, yellow or greenish discharge from the nose or down the back of the throat.

Chronic sinusitis is sometimes complicated by a sinus tract obstruction. And also an abscess – Eye-push pressure , pressure on the optic nerve and the brain infection and meningitis are entering.And even the incidence of blindness for this type of sinusitis is reported.

Allergies can lead to sinusitis by the mechanism of swelling in the sinus passages.Mechanical obstruction of the sinus tract can be caused by a deviated septum , polyps inside the nasal cavity or entering some objects like stone,Nuts – a small battery and …..(especially in children). These physical factors also cause sinusitis or obstruction.Sometimes a tumor in the nasal cavity causes nasal obstruction , blockage of the sinus passages and sinusitis.

General symptoms for self-diagnosis of sinusitis are:

Symptoms of acute sinusitis

  • Ethmoid sinusitis symptoms

You may have pain between the eyes and tenderness when touching the bridge of your nose. Sometimes, the area around your eyes will swell, especially upon waking. As you stand up, your sinuses can better drain throughout the day to reduce this swelling.

  • Maxillary sinusitis symptoms

Usually you will feel a pain in the back of cheek on the upper teeth and even may have continued until the end of the eyes .Other symptoms are similar to the ethmoid sinus, and much more fever is occurred.

  • Frontal sinusitis symptoms

Usually you will feel a pain in the forehead and the other symptoms will be like others.

  • Sphenoid sinusitis symptoms

Usually in this type of sinusitis pain will be felt in the back and the upper area of the forehead and the eyes that is spread to the forehead and eyes. Its other complications are impaired vision and diplopia.

Symptoms of chronic sinusitis:

  • Ethmoid sinusitis symptoms

You will face chronic nasal discharge, feeling of tightness , pain while waking up and especially when using the glasses.There is chronic sore throat in this type of sinusitis.

  • Maxillary sinusitis symptoms

In this type of sinusitis ,you usually feel a pain in the lower part of the eye and its pain will usually be worse by flu.

  • Frontal sinusitis symptoms

You will encounter with mild headaches on the forehead, usually thetrauma or physical trauma which mentioned before will help to create a frontal sinus.

  • Sphenoid sinusitis symptoms

The mild pain in the head along the back of the head usually is a sign that you will face.

The diagnosis of sinusitis

The most important of the diagnosis is based on the patient’s history and examination.In most cases, the patient had a respiratory infection and sinusitis.

In most cases, the diagnosis by the doctor is accordance with symptoms of sinusitis.But when the data are not sufficient and the doctor needs to have more confidence,the doctor will need to other diagnosis methods and CT scans is usually used.

In this way, it becomes clear that how many sinuses and from what type have a problem.These problems migh tbe identified for doctors by the surface of the liquid and air, obstruction, infection and full involvement of sinus and the wall thickness of sinuses.

Is surgery always the only way to fix the problem of sinusitis?

As discussed before,treatment method depends on the cause of the problem.

The base of sinusitis treatment

Generally, the goal in treating sinusitis is to reduce swelling, eliminate the infection,discharge and creating the opening to the sinuses to remain opened after therapy.

Treatment of acute sinusitis:

More rest,drinking a lot of liquids,antibiotics (as recommended by your doctor),corticosteroid sprays with thinning mucus and washing it with warm salt water and a treatment time will last at least eight to ten days.

Treatment of chronic sinusitis:

The goal in this type of sinusitis usually is reduction of infection and inflammation.And mainly we have 45 to 60-day treatment by antibiotics and corticosteroids sprays.After the medical treatment , the infection will be assessed based on the characteristics of the CT scan and if the infection was seen,the surgery would be the only way to cure a patient.

Others sinusitis:

In the case of congenital birth defects such as cleft lip and nose or atresia, the main treatment is surgery,it may be done at a certain age and often requires several steps. And also in traumatic fracture or physical wastes the main treatment is surgery. In cancer,chemotherapy or radiotherapy is recommended after taking samples from tumor.

But in cases which the cause of the problem is allergy or chemical drug, Treatment is non surgical and drug treatment or vaccination is often used.

Because of the lack of proper response to drug treatment,the surgery is recommended for polyps.

Todays, the treatment of sinus surgery is FESS which the surgery is done by sinus endoscopy without cutting the nose.

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